Music in the Wound Care Center: Effects on Anxiety Levels and Blood Pressure Measurements in Patients Receiving Standard Care

In the United States, chronic wounds (including venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and pressure ulcers/injuries) affect approximately 8.2 million people as estimated by a 2018 retrospective analysis of Medicare beneficiaries, and treatment costs ranged from $28 billion to $96.8 billion annually.1 These numbers are expected to increase with the growing aging population and higher prevalence rates of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and peripheral artery disease, in older adults.1 Patients with chronic wounds are reported as having poor quality of life associated with chronic pain and odorous exudate.2 The treatment of chronic wounds in the wound care center (WCC) requires wound assessment, minor procedures, and dressing changes. WCCs provide a specialized level of care using various wound care therapies to promote healing.3 Anxiety has been reported during treatment and may lead to increased pain sensation and stress.4 Pharmacological treatment has been a traditional way to alleviate anxiety; however, this can increase the risk of drug dependency and unwanted side effects.5 Nonpharmacological approaches are considered to be more desirable because of fewer side effects and greater cost-efficiency … continue